Sunday, January 26, 2020

Areas to Support Children’s Learning and Development

Areas to Support Children’s Learning and Development Supporting Children’s Learning and Development Children are developing all the time and their learning reflects this, so, for example, when a child can pull themselves up they can suddenly reach things they couldn’t before or when they learn new words they begin to label objects such as ball or drink. The revised EYFS uses the term Learning and Development to describe seven areas of learning. These are all related to each other however, they are divided into prime and specific areas. Prime Areas Personal, Social and Emotional Development Communication and Language Physical Development Specific Areas Literacy Mathematics Understanding the World Expressive Arts and Design In addition the revised EYFS refers to the different ways that children learn as the characteristics of learning: playing and exploring – children investigate and experience things and ‘have a go’. Active learning – children concentrate and keep on trying if they encounter difficulties and enjoy achievements. Creating and thinking critically – children have and develop their own ideas, make links between ideas and develop strategies for doing things. Together with the prime and specific areas these comprise the knowledge, skills and experiences that are developmentally appropriate for children from birth to 5 years. Personal, Social and Emotional Development – Involves helping children to form positive relationships, to develop social skills and learn how to manage their feelings and develop respect for others. Personal, Social and Emotional Development is made up of these aspects: Self Confidence and Self Awareness – Children are confident to try new activities and say why they like some activities more than others. They are confident to speak in a familiar group, talk about their ideas and say when they do or don’t need help. Managing Feelings and Behaviour – Children talk about how they and others show feelings, talk about their own and others behaviour and that some behaviour is unacceptable. They work part of a group and understand to follow rules. Making Relationships – Children play co-operatively, taking turns with others. They take account of one another’s ideas about how to organise their activity. They show sensitivity and form positive relationships with adults and other children. Communication and Language – Involves giving children the opportunity to develop their confidence and skills. To give children the best opportunity for developing communication and language. Communication and Language is made up of these aspects: Listening and Attention – Children listen attentively in a range of situations. They listen to stories and respond to what they hear with relevant comments or questions. They give their attention to what others say and respond appropriately while engaged in another activity. Understanding – Children follow instructions involving several ideas or actions. They answer ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions about their experiences and in response to stories and events. Speaking – Children express themselves effectively. They use past, present and future forms accurately when talking about events that have happened or are to happen in the future. They develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas or events. Physical Development – Involves providing opportunities for young children to be active and interactive, and to develop their co-ordination, control and movement. Children must also be helped to understand the importance of physical activity and to make healthy choices to food. Physical Development is made up of these aspects: Moving and Handling – Children show good control and co-ordination. They move confidently in a range of ways. They handle equipment and tools effectively, for example, pencils for writing and climbing equipment. Health and Self Care – Children know the importance for good health of physical exercise and a healthy diet and talk about ways to keep healthy and safe. They manage their own basic hygiene and personal needs including dressing and going to the toilet independently. The Specific Areas Literacy – Literacy development involves encouraging children to link sounds and letters and to begin to read and write. Children must be given access to a wide range of reading materials such as books to ignite their interests. Literacy Development is made up of these aspects: Reading – Children read and understand simple sentences. They use phonic knowledge to decode regular words and read them aloud accurately. They demonstrate understanding when talking with others about what they have read. Writing – Children use their phonic knowledge to write words in ways which match their spoken sounds. They write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and others. Practitioners could support writing skills by providing sand to promote writing. Mathematics – Involves providing children with opportunities to develop and improve their skills in counting, understanding and using numbers, calculating simple addition and subtraction problems and to describe shapes, spaces and measures. Mathematics is made up of these aspects: Numbers – Children count reliably from 1-20 place them in order and say which number is one more or one less than a given number. Using quantities and objects, they add and subtract two single digit numbers and count on or back to find the answer. Practitioners could supply building blocks and numbered jigsaws to help support this. Shape, Space and measures – Children use everyday language to talk about size, weight, distance, time and money to compare quantities and objects and to solve problems. They recognise, create and describe patterns. They explore characteristics of everyday objects and use mathematical language to describe them. Different sizes and shapes of building bricks and blocks could be used to promote this. Understanding the World – Involves guiding children to make sense of their physical world and their community through opportunities to explore, observe and find out about people, places, technology and the environment. Understanding the World is made up of these aspects: People and Communities – Children talk about past and present events in their own lives and family members. They know about similarities and differences between themselves and others and among families, communities and traditions. Practitioners could use pictures and photographs to display different cultures. The World – Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, material and living things. They talk about their own environment and how environments might vary from one another. Children will also develop an understanding to care for their environment. Practitioners should support this by getting children to care for plants or a small vegetable patch. Technology – Children recognise that a range of technology is used in places such as homes and schools. They select and use technology for particular purposes. Younger children use mechanical toys while older children could take, in turn, using a computer. Expressive Arts and Design – Involves enabling children to explore and play with a wide range of media and materials. This area supports children’s curiosity and play. They explore and share their thinking, ideas and feelings in music, in art, movement and dance, role play and technology. Expressive Arts and Design is made up of these aspects: Exploring and using Media and Materials – Children sing songs, make music and dance. They safely use and explore a variety of materials, tools and techniques experimenting with colour, design, texture, form and function. Practitioners could use tape recorders, cd players and musical instruments. Being imaginative – Children use what they have learnt about media and materials in original ways thinking about uses and purposes. They represent their own ideas, thoughts and feelings through design and technology, art, music, dance, role play and stories. Practitioners should provide a variety of role play materials and support children’s imaginative ideas. Children develop and learn in different ways. Practitioners need to look at what skills and knowledge the children are demonstrating and consider ways to support the child to strengthen and deepen their current learning and development skills. This will ensure that the individual needs of the child are met. There are 3 characteristics of effective learning to help us focus on and understand how children learn. Playing and Exploring Finding out and Exploring Using what they know in their play Being willing to have a go This characteristic of learning focuses on a children’s engagement with the resources they use, the environment they are in and the people around them. Children should have opportunities to be involved in open ended, hands on experiences prompted by their own curiosity. Children’s play experiences should enable them to seek things out that interest them, initiate activities, seek challenges, develop a ‘can do’ attitude, and be willing to take a risk in trying out new experiences and begin to see ‘failures’ as a learning opportunity. Play also provides the link to the areas of learning and development and gives the opportunity for children to explore their own feelings, views and ideas. Active Learning Being involved and Concentrating Keep Trying Enjoying and Achieving which they set out to do Active Learning focuses on the role of intrinsic motivation which supports long term success. Children need to be able to follow their interests for long periods of time, fully engaged in what they are doing and concentrating deeply. In their activities, children should be encouraged to face challenges and keep on trying if they encounter difficulties. Practitioners should help children to value the rewards of their own success. Creating and Thinking Critically Having their own ideas Using what they already know to learn new things Choosing ways to do things and finding new ways Creating and thinking critically highlights the importance of observing how children are thinking. Children have and develop their own ideas. Children should have many opportunities to be creative, generating new ideas, being inventive, finding problems and challenges and figuring out their own ways to solve them. By respecting children’s ideas will give them confidence to try out new experiences. Children from a very young age enjoy organising and processing information, creating patterns and making predictions based on what they already know. Children develop and learn in different ways. There is a great deal of overlap between the ages and stages because all children develop at different rates and at their own pace. This should be remembered when planning activities. Birth to 11 months – babies enjoy being held and cuddled. They enjoy the company of others. Practitioners should ensure that all staff are aware of the importance of attachment and to get staff to say ‘hello’ and ‘goodbye’ as this develops a secure and trusting relationship. Practitioners should plan to have one to one contact with babies and provide toys/objects to be sucked and squeezed and provide space to roll around and explore. 8 – 20 months – babies and young children will now start to build relationships with special people. They start to show an interest in activities so practitioners could provide push along toys and trikes for outdoor play. 16-26 months – children start to play alongside others and play co-operatively with a familiar adult. Practitioners could then play name games to get everyone to know each other. Plan play activities to get children to explore new toys and environments such as trikes, pushchairs for dolls, dough, sand and cd’s and story books. 22-36 months – children now show an interest with others and want to join in. Many form special friendships with others. Practitioners can provide resources that promote co-operation between two children like a bat and ball. Provide safe spaces so children can run around safely, kick a ball and use A frames. Practitioners can discuss with other staff how each child responds to activities and build on this to plan future activities. 30-50 months – children now play within a group and initiate play. Practitioners need to provide space and materials for group play, for example, lego. 40-60 months – Practitioners need to ensure that children have opportunities to play with everyone in the group and to provide activities that involve taking turns and sharing. Practitioners need to plan time and space for energetic play and plan activities where children can practice moving, throwing, climbing and kicking. Experiment different ways of moving.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Preferential Hiring in the North Essay

Inuit in the north, specifically in Nunavut, have an agreement with the government that they receive special benefits to help with day-to-day problems because of what happened to their people in the past. It is common knowledge that when explorers and traders first went to the north, they mistreated the aboriginals up there. They introduce alcohol and tobacco, they forced them to become sedentary by killing off their sled dogs and setting up trading booths for fur trades and such, and they quickly made them become â€Å"Europeanized†. This is not a proud part of Canadian history, and there have been measures taken to try and make up for the wrongs that were done. One of these measures is preferential hiring for Inuit. Although preferential hiring may seem like a fair arrangement given all that has happened, it is incredibly unjust and creates unnecessary problems. It is a fact that in the north the government has to hire a certain percent of Inuit when they are filling job pos itions. I do not agree with this because what ends up happening is that to be able to meet the agreed amount of beneficiaries hired, the government then has to employ people who may not have the qualifications necessary for the job, or who aren’t as trained and competent as other candidates. What also happens in many cases is that the requirements necessary to apply for a position get watered down until they are simple enough to target a larger crowd. This results in a slow-moving government with poor decision-making skills and no proficiency nor productivity. For example, a couple of years ago, in Iqaluit, there was a position as a secretary of a school that needed to be filled. However, there were no Inuit who applied that had enough qualifications for the job, so the school board then had to change the contract, saying that the minimum education requirement was a grade 10 education. A secretary of a school has many responsibilities, and I feel that it is needless to say that a pers on working in a learning facility should have a minimum of a high school diploma. That example was not an uncommon occurrence, it happens far too regularly in the north. It is a huge part of the reason why there is no motivation for a higher education in the youth of the north. These individuals know that if they can at least graduate high school, then they are almost guaranteed a job, and often a six digit salary (or very close to  it). They become lazy, and do not want to waste their time going to get a post-secondary education when they can easily get a job without one. This leads to my next point. There are many people who apply for the government jobs who have all the necessary qualifications and have the proper training and experience for the job, who don’t even get considered simply because of their nationality; if they aren’t Inuit, they aren’t wanted. This is borderline racism. The most qualified person should receive the job; all other factors (within reason) should be irrelevant. It is unfair towards all those who take the time and spend their money going through university, to be overlooked because there was a beneficiary with a high school diploma who also applied for the job. My final point is that there is no reason whatsoever for an Inuit not to have the proper credentials for a job apart from pure laziness. They are given all the opportunities imaginable, and it is their own fault if they do not take them. There is no excuse anymore for them not to have an education, because the government pays for their entire schooling. In fact, Inuit students get paid to go to university and other educational facilities. They are actually making money instead of going in to debt like most students. Therefore, one might wonder, why would someone not want to go to university and get a higher education if they are being paid for it? And the answer is because they do not need an education to get well-respected and well-paid jobs. There are plenty of examples why preferential hiring for Inuit is in fact handicapping them instead of helping them. The efficiency of the government in the north is nowhere near the same as the rest of Canada, and it is due to a lack of qualifications of those who are preferentially hired. By eliminating preferential hiring, you would be increasing motivation for a higher education and a better working society.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

The Chernobyl disaster was a fire at a Ukrainian nuclear reactor, releasing substantial radioactivity within and outside the region. The consequences to human and environmental health are still felt to this day. The V.I. Lenin Memorial Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station was located in Ukraine, near the town of Pripyat, which had been built to house power station employees and their families. The power station was in a wooded, marshy area near the Ukraine-Belarus border, approximately 18 kilometers northwest of the city of Chernobyl and 100 km north of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station included four nuclear reactors, each capable of producing one gigawatt of electric power. At the time of the accident, the four reactors produced about 10 percent of the electricity used in Ukraine. Construction of the Chernobyl power station began in the 1970s. The first of the four reactors was commissioned in 1977, and Reactor No. 4 began producing power in 1983. When the accident occurred in 1986, two other nuclear reactors were under construction. The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident On Saturday, ​April 26, 1986, the operating crew planned to test whether the Reactor No. 4 turbines could produce enough energy to keep the coolant pumps running until the emergency diesel generator was activated in case of an external power loss. During the test, at 1:23:58 am local time, power surged unexpectedly, causing an explosion and driving temperatures in the reactor to more than 2,000 degrees Celsius—melting the fuel rods, igniting the reactor’s graphite covering, and releasing a cloud of radiation into the atmosphere. The precise causes of the accident are still uncertain, but it is generally believed that the series of incidents that led to the explosion, fire, and nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl was caused by a combination of reactor design flaws and operator error. Loss of Life and Illness By mid-2005, fewer than 60 deaths could be linked directly to Chernobyl—mostly workers who were exposed to massive radiation during the accident or children who developed thyroid cancer. Estimates of the eventual death toll from Chernobyl vary widely. A 2005 report by the Chernobyl Forum—eight U.N. organizations—estimated the accident eventually would cause about 4,000 deaths. Greenpeace places the figure at 93,000 deaths, based on information from the Belarus National Academy of Sciences. The Belarus National Academy of Sciences estimates 270,000 people in the region around the accident site will develop cancer as a result of Chernobyl radiation and that 93,000 of those cases are likely to be fatal. Another report by the Center for Independent Environmental Assessment of the Russian Academy of Sciences found a dramatic increase in mortality since 1990—60,000 deaths in Russia and an estimated 140,000 deaths in Ukraine and Belarus—probably due to Chernobyl radiation. Psychological Effects of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident The biggest challenge facing communities still coping with the fallout of Chernobyl is the psychological damage to 5 million people in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. The psychological impact is now considered to be Chernobyls biggest health consequence, said Louisa Vinton, of the UNDP. People have been led to think of themselves as victims over the years, and are therefore more apt to take a passive approach toward their future rather than developing a system of self-sufficiency.† Exceptionally high levels of psychological stress have been reported from the regions around the abandoned nuclear power station.   Countries and Communities Affected Seventy percent of the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl landed in Belarus, affecting more than 3,600 towns and villages, and 2.5 million people. The radiation-contaminated soil, which in turn contaminates crops that people rely on for food. Surface and ground waters were contaminated, and in turn plants and wildlife were (and still are) affected. Many regions in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine are likely to be contaminated for decades. Radioactive fallout carried by the wind was later found in sheep in the UK, on clothing worn by people throughout Europe, and in rain in the United States. Various animals and livestock have been mutated by this as well. Chernobyl Status and Outlook The Chernobyl accident cost the former Soviet Union hundreds of billions of dollars, and some observers believe it may have hastened the collapse of the Soviet government. After the accident, Soviet authorities resettled more than 350,000 people outside the worst areas, including all 50,000 people from nearby Pripyat, but millions of people continue to live in contaminated areas. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, many projects intended to improve life in the region were abandoned, and young people began to move away to pursue careers and build new lives in other places. In many villages, up to 60 percent of the population is made up of pensioners, said Vasily Nesterenko, director of the Belrad Radiation Safety and Protection Institute in Minsk. In most of these villages, the number of people able to work is two or three times lower than normal. After the accident, Reactor No. 4 was sealed, but the Ukranian government allowed the other three reactors to keep operating because the country needed the power they provided. Reactor No. 2 was shut down after a fire damaged it in 1991, and Reactor No. 1 was decommissioned in 1996. In November 2000, the Ukranian president shut down Reactor No. 3 in an official ceremony that finally closed the Chernobyl facility. But Reactor No. 4, which was damaged in the 1986 explosion and fire, is still full of radioactive material encased inside a concrete barrier, called a sarcophagus, that is aging badly and needs to be replaced. Water leaking into the reactor carries radioactive material throughout the facility and threatens to seep into the groundwater. The sarcophagus was designed to last about 30 years, and current designs would create a new shelter with a lifetime of 100 years. But radioactivity in the damaged reactor would need to be contained for 100,000 years to ensure safety. That is a challenge not only for today  but for many generations to come.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Cuándo un Divorcio Afecta la Residencia

Una de las formas mà ¡s rà ¡pidas y frecuentes de obtener la  tarjeta de residencia permanente  es mediante el matrimonio, bien sea celebrado en Estados Unidos o en otro paà ­s. Pero  ¿quà © sucede con la green card si la relacià ³n termina en divorcio? Es importante resaltar que la residencia solo se verà ¡ afectada si el beneficiario obtuvo su estatus migratorio exclusivamente por matrimonio. Si la persona llegà ³ a Estados Unidos con una visa de trabajo, se casà ³ posteriormente con un ciudadano americano y luego se divorcià ³, su estatus migratorio no està ¡ en peligro. Estos son los dos casos en los que el divorcio afecta la residencia del cà ³nyuge beneficiario: Si el divorcio sucede antes de que se reciba la green card: entre la entrega de papeles a la oficina de USCIS y la obtencià ³n de la tarjeta de residencia pueden pasar entre seis y doce meses. Si el divorcio sucede antes de que se reciba la tarjeta, el beneficiario pierde todos los derechos. Si el divorcio sucede por maltrato o violencia de parte del ciudadano americano, el no-residente tiene opciones para quedarse legalmente (esta là ­nea 1-800-799-7233 puede ser de gran ayuda).Si el divorcio sucede cuando la residencia es temporal: si la residencia se obtuvo de manera temporal (dos aà ±os) porque los papeles se presentaron antes de los dos aà ±os de casados, el beneficiario pierde los beneficios migratorios. Quienes recibieron la residencia permanente y piden el divorcio al poco tiempo de recibida la green card deben saber que: Un futuro proceso de naturalizacià ³n (ciudadanà ­a) puede verse afectado dado que el matrimonio podrà ­a parecer no legitimo.Un futuro proceso de renovacià ³n de la residencia puede generar preguntas acerca de la naturaleza del matrimonio y las causas del divorcio.Los procesos de inmigracià ³n en todos los puertos pueden generar preguntas acerca de la naturaleza del matrimonio y las causas del divorcio.Un futuro matrimonio entre el beneficiario de la green card y otro inmigrante no tiene beneficios de residencia por cinco aà ±os. Quienes obtengan su residencia por matrimonio, se divorcien, y se casen nuevamente, deberà ¡n esperar cinco aà ±os desde que obtuvieron su green card para pedir beneficios para su nuevo esposo/a. Quienes patrocinaron a su cà ³nyuge inmigrante deben saber que: Al firmar el affidavit of support està ¡n comprometidos durante aà ±os a la manutencià ³n econà ³mica de su pareja, asà ­ està ©n legalmente divorciados.  ¿Quà © Hacer Antes de Divorciarse? Antes de hacer el papeleo de divorcio es importante asesorarse de un abogado de inmigracià ³n, sobretodo en los casos en los que no existen pruebas documentales que sirvan para apoyar el carà ¡cter del matrimonio (propiedades o cuentas de banco conjuntas, viajes, hijos en comà ºn, fotos, facturas). Este artà ­culo es informativo y no pretende ser asesorà ­a legal.

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Differences and Similarities between Nietzsche and Freud

Nieztsche and Freud both philosophers of the 19th century, each famous for their different but similar metaphors. Nieztshche’s metaphor being the Ubermensch (ove rman) which was the ideal superior man who in the coming future would go over the morals of Christianity and force his values to be accepted. Freud was the founder of the psychoanalysis which is the analysis of the human psyche, with his investigations he discovered the id, ego and superego. Nieztshche and Freud’s metaphors have their similarities and differences, Nieztsche’s idea is that in order to be human or the over man you have to be at a constant war or struggle with social, religious and political convention and that we need to break free and be independent thinkers and not accept the rules that we are given by the authorities or by those in power but we must be creative and create our own values, we are relaxed because society (christianity) defends the weak and that is denying human nature from letting people think for themselves. We should accept and enjoy life as it is with all its struggles and pains that it throws at us and if we do so then we will be the super man and be in love with life. Freud metaphor says that in order to be human you must be a split subject-id, ego and superego, the mind experiences a constant battle of emotions, desires and thoughts all of these that happen in the sub-conscious so what we have to do is supress and repress them so that we can be able to socialise proper. ThisShow MoreRelatedMarilynne Robinsons Essay Darwinism1340 Words   |  6 PagesRobinson offers many ideas (or themes) in her essay, three specific ones stood out more than the others. She spends some time discussing the relationship between Creationism and Darwinism; she attacks the way a Nietzschean ethic of selfishness has become respectable in the world; she also discusses the problems of the ideologies of Sigmund Freud. Along with references from Daniel Migliore and his book, Faith Seeking Understanding, these ideas provide much towards Robinson’s argument against DarwinismRead More love Essay785 Words   |  4 Pageslove: intense, all consuming, possessive, and flu ctuating between joy and despair. 3. Ludic love: egoistic, self-serving, competitive, and based on an unequal relationship between one partner who is highly committed and another who is emotionally uninvolved. 4. Pragmatic love: a rational, practical, fair exchange between two carefully matched partners. 5. Storgic love: the companionate, stable love that emerges from a relationship between friends. 6. Agapic love: the altruistic devotion of oneRead MoreEssay on Morality and Relgion - Irish Murdoch1704 Words   |  7 PagesIris Murdoch-â€Å"Morality and Religion†: Notes pg. 733, para 1: Murdoch’s purpose is to question the relationship of morality to religion, and look at their differences as well as the definition of religion. -She claims this essay is moral philosophy and feels she must clarify whether her philosophy is religious or not. -She discusses how some believe religion really must be â€Å"breathed in† during childhood (taught to children by their parents); otherwise, adults may feel they are just faking it—butRead MoreEssay on Postmodernism and Social Praxis4522 Words   |  19 PagesFoucaults purpose in writing genealogies was never action-oriented. He only set out to show those changes. By definition, genealogy never rests in one discourse or on one truth. Foucault, as an interpreter, emphasizes the necessary tension between keeping distance from historical discourse and awareness of ones inescapable position in historical discourse. In short, the genealogist can never rest on his or her laurels: seeming bases of truth are actually constantly changing historical constructionsRead Morewisdom,humor and faith19596 Words   |  79 PagesPerspective, and Values 2 Humor’s Contribution to Wisdom 4 Humor and Wisdom in Europe: Some Highlights 5 Renaissance Humor: Erasmus, Rabelais, Cervantes, Shakespeare 5 Two European Russians: Anton Chekhov and Vladimir Soloviev 9 Reflections on Humor from Nietzsche to the Theatre of the Absurd 12 Humor and Wisdom in the United States: Lincoln, Beecher, Twain, Sandburg, and Buchwald 17 From The Times (of London) obituary on him (January 19, 2007) that mentioned his â€Å"wit and wisdom† in its title, available atRead MoreAn Essay on Social Contract Theory3139 Words   |  13 Pagescontractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals. All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract; such violation would signify a problematic attempt to returnRead MoreAn Essay on Social Contract Theory3151 Words   |  13 Pagescontractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals. All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract; such violation would signify a problematic attempt to returnRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesapplication and consideration of how managment practice is formed and shaped by ideas and concepts. The authors have brought their wealth of experience and understanding and provided the field with an imaginative resource to address the dynamics between theory and practice. Dr Susanne Tietze, Bradford University, UK The key to success for managers is not only to be result oriented but also to be wise in their decision making. This requires that they have a deeper than superficial understanding of

Monday, December 16, 2019

Were respectable Victorians any more concerned about sex than their great grandparents had been Free Essays

Before one can answer the question above, two key terms need to be explained: ‘respectable’ and ‘sex’. The Victorian climate was such that the term respectable is usually applied only to those members of society with sufficient status to be marked out as noticeable in a rural/urban setting. To this extent, it is perhaps more correct to realise that the question is aiming towards those Victorians of middle to high status than those of the middle and upper classes. We will write a custom essay sample on Were respectable Victorians any more concerned about sex than their great grandparents had been? or any similar topic only for you Order Now More to the point, respectable may mean either those people of status, or those men of high status. Sex’ is a term that carries two main connotations, intercourse and gender. Gender itself is a pretty wide ranging issue, covering the role of women in both social life and in the home, as well as increasing political activity from females. In effect, the question is somewhat multi-faceted, and requires a three-sided response: how far were men more aware of women’s need and rights in the nineteenth century than in the eighteenth; how did the role of the female change between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; and, how did general attitudes towards intercourse and women change in a broader sense? This final question invites a response on how sex was taught, or indeed practised, in the Victorian period. One can see a change in the nineteenth century towards a society that was more concerned with some aspects of sex, especially those carnal. As Michael Mason puts it, the sexual practices of the early nineteenth century experienced a ‘crisis of confidence’. Yet by mid-century, trends of concubinage and commitment meant that traditional (male) practices of prostitution were considerably displaced. As the attitudes of men changed towards a family environment, so did the role of women. Women became not only homemakers but also socially active people, rather than their traditional role of sitting in the background and looking pretty. Trends in literature towards such feminist authors as the Bronte sisters and Jane Austen, as well as strong feminist trends in some of Dickens’ literature, were representative of a society considering the roles of women and bringing their rights to the fore. Trends also changed from the passive acceptance of wife beating towards an admittedly passive non-acceptance of such practices. In effect, there were many significant changes towards a society that accepted sex in all its forms far more than a century before, albeit in a more austere fashion. Firstly the question of the awareness of women needs to be addressed more fully. As trends of marriage changed towards a more family based atmosphere, so did the attitudes towards the Victorian woman. A female Queen, for whom the country held a significant respect, precipitated an almost passive acceptance of the female import in society. The Victorian man was, unlike his great grandparents, frowned upon for un- gentlemanly behaviour in the home. A change toward this acceptance of the female role was precursor to the increased role of the male in family life. As L Davidoff has claimed, men spent much more time at work but were also ‘in and out of the house place†¦ helping with the children†¦ taking part in the endless rounds of tea drinking and dropping in of relatives’ By the 50s, men were leaving active business to spend more time with family and to allow younger family members to take over the day to day running of affairs, often women being allowed to do this. Men were effectively becoming absorbed into what was previously, and exclusively, the female way of life. Alongside this change was the acceptance of women into such societies as the Rainbow Circle, with some such as the Primrose League being set up for women alone. Thus women were not only allowed a political voice, but were actively taking one also. The ideas of station in the family may not have changed, but they were certainly evened out. As urbanisation increased, so did the acceptance of female by men. In eighteenth century rural England, the middle classes were small, and the sense of community amongst them sparse, with urbanisation came middle class community, which had the effect of introducing a social code by which everyone was socially obligated to abide. Certain trends towards females did not change however, domestics and governesses were still female, yet the number of affairs between the head of the household and his servants decreased rapidly, yet this may be representative more of the austere privacy of the Victorian household which would be reluctant to admit such activities than an actual fall in such indiscretions. In effect, the attitudes towards women changed. They changed in both the way women were treated, and in the assumption of traditional female roles in the household of men. Yet the Victorian woman was equally different from her eighteenth century counterpart. The Victorian woman was a changing force in society. Such occurrences as the Custody of Infants Act of 1839, and the later trend for educating girls at schools (both precipitated women) give evidence to the changing female character. The Custody of Infants Act in particular is representative of the power able to be exercised by Victorian women over their husbands. This Act, which crystallised after the legal battle fought by Caroline Norton to keep her children after separation from a violent husband. This not only shows that the female had a right to her children in equal capacity to her husband, but also that there was an ability for a woman to challenge a man in a court- a legal power not previously seen. It also is indicative of the new emphasis on motherhood, or more to the point, its importance over and above the importance of the male figure. F M L Thompson, maybe over enthusiastically, terms this change in early Victorian female culture a precursor to ‘female rebellion’. He doses have a point however, at the time many thinkers both on the left and right such as Peter Gaskell and Richard Oastler felt that the family and consequently the moral fabric of society was about to collapse due to an increased female role. Changing the emergence of the politically interested female of all classes and statuses complemented this emancipation. Organisations such as the Primrose League were representative of not only a new working/middle class political voice, but also of a female voice. In addition to the having a voice in the political world, and in society, as well as legal rights, the right to divorce was also important. The Divorce Act of 1857 allowed wives for the first time to divorce their violent husbands, which was an important factor in the beginning of women’s rights, which became codified legally over the ensuing century. It also had the effect of reducing the number of ambiguous separations, which were against the fabric of the Victorian family life. In effect, the change in the role of women was not huge, but it was significant. Rights within the family increased, as did station in society. Changing attitudes towards intercourse are also important. Marriage is important in this sphere also, as well as family life. One of the most striking features of Victorian England was the relative decline in prostitution compared with the increase of towns and cities. This may be attributed to the transformation towards a family atmosphere, and the importance of sexual relations in the home. This may be attributed towards the Victorian culture of evangelicalism and nonconformity both of which preached ideas of temperance, and the consequent decline in alcohol consumption amongst respectable people. Alongside this came a new awareness of sexual diseases, with many people feeling sufficiently more comfortable with themselves to request treatment. Sex as an act was more considered in the medical sphere also. Books were written detailing every aspect of sexuality, from academic books on ‘the orgasmic theory of ovulation’ to Dr Becklard’s self-help book ‘Becklard’s physiology’. It is true however, that by the end of the Victorian period, bipolar attitudes towards sex, meant that women were portrayed in nature as either frigid or insatiable, and men absolved from blame as servants to their katabolic needs. In effect, although women experienced a change in their roles and their perception, as sexual objects, their portrayal was quite regressive. To this extent sex in terms of the portrayal of men and women was both progressive in terms of thinking and theory (although most often mistaken) yet also regressive in its portrayals of each sex and its consequent categorisations of the sexes, which not until Freud were reversed. In addition to this, for the first time, sex education was taught on a very primitive level at school, and carnal sex was mentioned at a very understated level at home. In effect, trends of sex education were just breaking through, but nonetheless they were there. In conclusion, the Victorians were more aware of sex, both categorical and carnal. Trends towards traditional sexual roles were changed as men frequently took over roles at home, and women often took over their husbands businesses after death. Family trends revolutionised the position of the male at home, along with a willingness to consider women’s rights by allowing the Custody and Divorce Acts to be passed through parliament. Moreover, the Victorian female was able to push for such reform as she found a new social and political voice not before experience. This is not to say that suddenly the female was the central character in society, far from it. Husband continued to beat wives, and the Divorce Act didn’t precipitate a mass rush for every abused female to divorce their husbands. The female role was still very much subordinate to the male, but it was significantly improved on the position of the eighteenth century female. Trends towards intercourse complemented this as trends in marriage changed the way Victorian men sought sex. Prostitution declined and the social/medical considerations of sex changed in a way not seen in the eighteenth century. Although the austere male dominated society still excused the male from any blame of carnal desire, as compared with the female who was pushed to extremes of frigidity or insatiability. In effect, awareness of sex was increased, or at least more openly discussed. How to cite Were respectable Victorians any more concerned about sex than their great grandparents had been?, Papers

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Innovation Plan of Fletcher Building-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Innovation Plan that the Fletcher Building Organization needs to go through. Answer: Description of the organization: The organization that has been selected for this report is the Fletcher Building. This organization mainly deals in the making of several or various construction tools or products and services. The services that are offered by this organization include distribution or selling of construction products and their services include land development, mainly residential land or even constructions (Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013). It is the building industry with which Fletcher Building is associated and by size it is quite huge since it has its subsidiaries as well in countries or places like Asia, America and Australia with about 20,000 workers working globally (Gobble, 2013). Analysis and evaluation of the external atmosphere of the organization: Fletcher Building is one of the most popular and reputed building material companies in New Zealand and therefore it is important to properly analyze the external environment of the organization and how the external factors impact the organization. PESTEL analysis can be done here for a better understanding of the external environment (Gobble, 2013). Political aspects of New Zealand do not have much impact on the workings of the organization and politically New Zealand is a stable country (Leeuwis, 2013). Economic factor like the market scenario, the market rate, recession and so on greatly impact the construction organization since with these aspects their works are interrelated. At times when there is recession or low market share then the work of this organization is hampered or disrupted (Gobble, 2013). Social factors like lifestyle, the cultural and religious beliefs and so on are all associated with this aspect and affects or guides the material production process of the organization. It is based on the taste and preferences of the people that at times customized services or the construction products needs to be manufactured (Leeuwis, 2013). Technological factor greatly impact the organization since it is with the help of technology that the materials or the tools are prepared (Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013). The more the advanced is the technology is the more is the benefit of the organization since it is only with the aid of latest technology that the tools or the equipments can be made by Fletcher Building (Leeuwis, 2013). Environmental factors like temperature, pollution, recycling and so on are all associated with the work of Fletcher Building. These can positively or negatively impact the organization since if the organization does not keep in consideration all these points then there cant be any holistic development of Fletcher Building (Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013). Legal factor is very much important here since the organization is related with the construction and developmental works certain laws or guidelines related to this field needs to be followed by this organization or else it can affect the work proceedings of the organization (Gobble, 2013). Opportunities of innovation in the organization: There are several opportunities for innovation like in the production process or the manufacturing process, the marketing campaigns, the management process and also in the personnel department. These opportunities for innovation are associated with the growth of the organization (Cai and Liu 2014). Technical factors like better marketing strategy and understanding all the marketing tools is required here for developmental purpose. Kotters change management model that has 8 steps can also be used here. It mainly targets at bringing change in the organization, gradually, enabling the change changing and then implementing it. The company can bring in innovation in the construction of environmental sustainable buildings that offers several advantages. The renewable power cost installations have been falling and the current advances in the sustainable design might facilitate to enjoy benefits like solar installations can generate power on-site for off-setting the operational costs. More of the effective layouts would allow cost-effective cooling and heating. Sustainable building materials restrict the influence of the fresh construction on the natural environment. In the present scenario, the construction companies like Fletcher Building have been surprising the property owners with the full-range of the options of building control and automation. Smart buildings have been offering superior flexibility and suppleness through usage of the incorporated digital and mobile technology for improving the security on-site, controlling and regulating the climate along with on-site communication. Fletcher Building ca n also rope in pre-fabricating elements of building, a trend that is structuring the commercial assembly industry. Unlike the predictable methods of construction that takes in the facilities of construction, pre-fabricating construction and methods of assembly are dealt within protected environments offering better effectiveness and safety. Justification of the value of a selected innovation: Innovation in the marketing field can be done by the help of digital marketing policy that requires the active usage of social platforms and also online contents, blogs and so on that can be fruitful in the betterment of the organization (Union 2014). Innovation in the marketing field is justified because it is related with the overall growth and development of the organization and is also related with the better exposure and better focus on the organization. The selected innovation is justified here since this innovation or the innovative step is related to the development and the growth of Fletcher Building. Innovation will usher in many opportunities and thereby it will help in the positive marketing of the organization. The opportunities include communication with more number of people in terms of business, better exposure and also the advent of contemporary business techniques (Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013). Innovation is essential for a company of the stature of Fletcher Building whose objective has always been in running the best possible products of building and the construction of businesses, taking the advancement of consumer in ensuring businesses are worth more mutually. Their method of delivering the values of customers through the market-leading solutions is only possible through technological and product innovation like the pre-fabricating materials and sustainable building elements. Property owners have been investing a lot in getting the best possible constructions for living a comfortable life. Every innovation that the company wants to bring in should be aligned with their values of being bold, playing fair and intended towards the benefit of customers. This industry is highly competitive and if Fletcher Building is not indulging itself in upgrading its technological innovations and factors then the company would lag behind in the market. The property owners can switch over to other good companies that exist in New Zealand as competition is toug her and companies more or less align in distributing the same sort of services and products. Appropriate strategies recommended and justified: Recommended strategies that needs to be followed or are essential in the marketing field include the social marketing strategy, engaging people, creating visibility and exposure. Technical know-how like search engine optimization in social sites, trend analysis, using ad sense and so on is also required (Ahern, Cilliers and Niemel 2014). These strategies will overall increase the reach and the visibility of the organization and will also help the organization to reach to the masses and crater to the distributor, stakeholders, suppliers and so on and thereby will definitely help in the advancement of the organization and will also help in the revenue earning aspect of the organizations (Leeuwis, 2013). Recommended things to be done in this field include creating interactive blogs, contents and videos can also be made that will be an added benefit in this scenario (Union 2014). It is also recommended or suggested in this aspect that demo or trail services to the suppliers to buys the e quipments from Fletcher Building can also be initiated and this will be a part of the marketing campaign since this will arouse the interest of the buyers and will also attract large scale investors or dealers or project makers (Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013). It is also very much recommended that the organization can take traditional path to publicize their works, their business or their organization through the process like, direct messages, hoardings and so on. This will also be beneficial for those who are not much aware about the social platforms and will help in catering the interest of the local dwellers of the various regions of New Zealand (Leeuwis, 2013). Factors required to foster this innovation: The factors that are required to foster this innovation is a perfect marketing knowledge, a perfect growth strategy, a good know how of all the technicalities of the social media usage and also a good trend analysis strategy. Some of the specific factors include marketing strategy, social platform acquaintance, technical aptitude (Union 2014). Marketing knowledge can guide in taking the most appropriate steps or measures and that can be effectively implemented to derive the result. Marketing knowledge will also help in making the department aware about the ongoing social trends and systems and thereby that can be followed accordingly without any such hassle (Ahern, Cilliers and Niemel 2014). Growth strategy is also one of the factors that will show the growth trends of Fletcher Building in the social platforms that will mainly connect with all the regions of New Zealand and not only that it will also help in the oversees popularity of the organization (Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013). The technical aspect is essential mainly in online marketing form and is also very important in the analysis of how the organization is doing. Ethical issues: There can be some ethical issues as per the suggested innovation plan since this plan is all about the usage of the right technological and digital innovations related with the online usage of social platforms and thereby it can be said that any infringement or interference with the personal and the restricted information is not desirable here and can give rise to ethical issues (Leeuwis, 2013). Ethical issues are important for every company to focus on as breaching any would land them into deep trouble. Moreover ethical issue is a factor which if the company violates would lend them a bad name in the market. Fletcher Building is a company that has been in the business in New Zealand and many other countries for years, successfully completing the projects, having longer history of productive and continuing relationships within their business, shareholders and the communities they serve. The company has been able to institute a track record of formidable nature, having a strong reputa tion of strong governance along with keeping their investors informed and engaged in the ways they have been making money. It is important and ethical on the part of the company to let know the people that matters about the ways they have been going about business, their future plans and the path they would follow in all probability. Other ethical issues can be infringing with someones personal information since it is quite a common mistake while dealing with social platforms and also the fact of using the contents or pictures or others of a person that is not lawful. Violating others copyright is also one of the ethical issues that need to be keep within note (Ahern, Cilliers and Niemel 2014). Change that the organization needs to make to apply innovation: There are not much of the changes that the organization needs to make for applying the innovation processes however some points like the change in the management system specially in the marketing department needs to be advocated so that the department becomes aware about the new process or the way of doing things and also about the latest marketing techniques the department needs to adjust with the new change and work accordingly (Leeuwis, 2013). The marketing department needs to be more active and also need to be fully updated about the works, the trends, the several business offers, the equipments, the projects that are being done by the organizations (Gobble, 2013). At the time of change, people are bound to have concerns about the information factor. Fletcher Building management requires explaining its people the need for the organization to move towards a definite course and the reasons for the change being the best idea for the time being. Once the concerns of the information a re being satisfied, people would want to know the ways the change or the innovation would affect them at the personal level. Employees would always want to know the ways the changes would be implemented and where to venture in case of any technical backing and solutions to the issues that might occur. Many might be unaware of the technical application of the new technologies like the pre-fabricating materials or the detailed 3D BIM modeling that is being used by helping the construction professionals in creating better plans, generating faster results and staying within the budget. These are some of the changes that are very essential in this process and are also very important to fully execute the innovation (Leeuwis, 2013). CEOs and the leaders across the organization require altering the way they work. As they continue to inquire about driving results at the tactical extent, leaders are looking for fresh regulations in giving them competitive advantage and fueling new markets and services along with products. For the purpose of innovating in successful manner, it is essential in becoming conscious of the issues related to adaptation in time, resulting from changes economically and technically and finding solutions of the same through generation of the effective innovation procedure. Fletcher Buildings ability in competing in near future and the situation of profit to a greater level generally would be depending on this. Fletcher Building needs to find solutions to the following questions like: Which are the sort of innovations that the market requires and whether it is possible in introducing them with the technology and services at ones disposal along with current construction? Which is the action that needs to be taken for innovations to be successful in market? Which are the tasks that needs to be fulfilled for introducing the innovation and the requirement of the tasks to be segregated and coordinated Appropriate model for managing resistance: In the entire innovation plan there can be resistance or conflict or issues and for that an model needs to be developed so that the hindrances can be overlooked and the work and be put forward. Some of the employees might not be on the same page with the organizational leaders on the changes that the company is thinking of bringing in within its work process. They might not be acquainted with the technological innovations that the company is thinking of. Unless the organization is able to bring everyone at the same table and hold discussions about the ways it would implement the change process, resistance would be a normal affair. There needs to be a proper plan on what needs to done, how it should be done and what are the backup strategies or plans in position if the initial plan does not work. A general or a simple model for combating resistances can be developed that will mainly consist of the diagnosis, evaluation and implementation (Leeuwis, 2013). Diagnosis is all about perfect ly diagnosing the problems or the hindrances that are coming in the way or creating an obstruction and there after evaluating it or accessing its relation with the work moment and then finally implementing the desired or the chalked out plan of the work motive. This very model can be aptly used to manage the resistance or combat the resistance and help in the successful implementation of the plan (Leeuwis, 2013). Adkar model can be brought into the context here which consist of Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Action and Reinforcement. Awareness is all about giving brief for the reason behind the modifications. Desire is to implant the need or the benefits that one can get from the changes. Knowledge is to learn the new changes that are going to come (Cai and Liu 2014). Action is to bring the thing into field or action. Reinforcement is to coach the entire thing. However in the process some negative publicity or the negative use of advertising or marketing can be done that needs to be handled with this very model. Appropriate leadership style: Transactional leadership style would be appropriate here since it is all about being flexible and is also about taking the points or the views of the subordinates. This leadership style will help in the growth of the organization in an advanced way and would also help in the team bonding which is essential here (Cai and Liu 2014). New innovations require certain amount of change within the organization. It is thus important for the leaders of Fletcher Building to bring together the whole team and discuss the path they are thinking to follow in bringing about the changes and discuss clearly the role each of the employees would play. It is about working together and facing the issues co-operatively. At the time when the company goes through a phase of change it is essential for the employees and the organizational leaders to keep their level of communication at the best possible level. Any distort in the communication level would jeopardize the overall process of innovation change. Strategies to manage resistance to change: Strategies like communication, training and education, cultural ethics of the company, reward and motivation and flexibility of the working departments can be made for tactfully handling the resistance to change (Cai and Liu 2014). These strategies are very effective since it is helpful in dealing with the resistances or the hindrances that are there and thereby can form the right way for the development of business of an organization. The company management should opt for training in the best possible way so that its employees get acquainted with the latest technologies in the construction business. The training needs to be well communicated and if the company require can appoint someone from the outside who has the knowledge of the technological aspects that is doing the rounds in construction business. Every employee should be flexible and adaptive to the new technology that the company is thinking of bringing in into their system. These strategies will help in making a relaxing a nd a flexible working environment (Leeuwis, 2013). Recommendation for future change management activities: Recommendation or suggestion for change management mainly include a good study of the market scenario and also the market trend and about the companys strength and weakness also since these are the points that will help in creating the change procedure that needs to be implemented. It is also suggested that the management needs to analyze mainly the requirement of the change and it also needs to be deduced that how the changes would be constructed (Cai and Liu 2014). The company also needs to keep an eye on its competitors and the ways it have been picking pace within the market through the help of innovation change and attracting the property owners for selecting them for construction purpose. There should not be any gap in the desired changes and the implementation of the same within the workplace References: Ahern, J., Cilliers, S., Niemel, J. (2014). The concept of ecosystem services in adaptive urban planning and design: A framework for supporting innovation.Landscape and Urban Planning,125, 254-259. Cai, Y., Liu, C. (2014). The roles of universities in fostering knowledge-intensive clusters in Chinese regional innovation systems.Science and Public Policy,42(1), 15-29. Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., McDonald, R. (2015). Disruptive innovation.Harvard Business Review,93(12), 44-53. De Massis, A., Frattini, F., Pizzurno, E., Cassia, L. (2015). Product innovation in family versus nonfamily firms: An exploratory analysis.Journal of Small Business Management,53(1), 1-36. Georghiou, L., Edler, J., Uyarra, E., Yeow, J. (2014). Policy instruments for public procurement of innovation: Choice, design and assessment.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,86, 1-12. Gobble, M. M. (2013). Outsourcing innovation.Research-Technology Management,56(4), 64-67. Johnston, R. E., Bate, J. D. (2013).The power of strategy innovation: a new way of linking creativity and strategic planning to discover great business opportunities. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. Martins, L. L., Rindova, V. P., Greenbaum, B. E. (2015). Unlocking the hidden value of concepts: a cognitive approach to business model innovation.Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal,9(1), 99-117. Moulaert, F. (Ed.). (2013).The international handbook on social innovation: collective action, social learning and transdisciplinary research. Edward Elgar Publishing. Seltzer, E., Mahmoudi, D. (2013). Citizen participation, open innovation, and crowdsourcing: Challenges and opportunities for planning.CPL bibliography,28(1), 3-18. Union, I. (2014).Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Brussels.